What factors do learners need to attend to, or become conscious of, in learning new sounds or correcting fossilized pronunciation habits?

Selinker defines fossilization as a phenomenon where a non-native speaker of a certain language continuously uses an erroneous linguistic item (Huang, 2009; Li, 2009; Qian & Xiao, 2010; Wei, 2008) Just like other phenomena, fossilization is also brought about by several factors. It is important for learners to be aware of, at least, the major ones so that they can put them under control.

One factor that causes fossilization is attitude. Some learners just don’t find English language learning very important. Others don’t find it interesting. Still others have negative attitudes toward the teacher or the materials used in the teaching and learning (Li, 2009; Qian & Xiao, 2010). Another factor which is closely related to attitude is confidence. When learners work hard and continue to fail, they are inclined to lose confidence in their ability to succeed and give up trying altogether (Li, 2009).

The learners’ L1 is another strong factor. EFL/ESL learners have strongly instilled the L1 rules in their minds so that when they learn a new language, they have the tendency to apply L1 rules to L2 system (Li, 2009). Selinker (as cited in Wei, 2008) has taken the same stand. In fact, he claims that the differences between L1 and L2 causes the occurrence of these errors leading to fossilization.

Another factor is the environment. Some environments provide ample opportunity for practice and authentic communicative environment (Li, 2009). So AIIAS is one such environment. It is, in fact, an immersion environment because learners just have to communicate in the target language most of the time. Environment can also mean the classroom and the teacher. Teachers’ errors can be transferred to students. So does incorrect teaching method and strategies; and, when left uncorrected, can lead to fossilization (Huang, 2009; Wei, 2008). This is the very reason why I believe that those who teach English should be trained how to teach and what to teach. Those who have not studied the intricacies of the English language will blindly believe that what they know is already enough and even correct.

Social distance is also a factor that can lead to fossilization. Social distance is the extent of the differences of two cultures, the source culture and the target culture of English language learners. The more dissimilar the two cultures are, the wider the social distance. Schumann’s1976 Hypothesis states that the language learning progress of learners depends on the social distance between the source culture and the target culture. The wider the gap, the harder it is for English literacy to develop (Brown, 2000; Huang, 2009).

Finally, intelligence affects fossilization. Gardner (as cite in Nkobi & Weaver, 2011) mentions eight intelligences. One of those is linguistic intelligence. Some learners are naturally endowed with linguistic intelligence so that they do not almost effortlessly understand and speak the language, they are also not prone to fossilization (Huang, 2009). In addition, the learners’ intelligence is closely linked to their learning styles. These not only refer to the overall strategies, but also to the specific preferences of strategies and styles that learners adopt. Inappropriate styles or misapplied strategies can saliently lead to fossilization (Li, 2009; Qian & Xiao, 2010; Wei, 2008). Modesty aside, I believe I have linguistic intelligence so that I easily learn a language in all four macro-skills. This claim doesn’t mean, however, that I can perfectly manipulate the language but at least I am able to communicate through these languages. I can also easily recognize the errors that I make in these language so that I can correct myself.



Brown, H. D. (2000). Principles of language learning and teaching (4th edition). White Plains, NY: Pearson

Huang, Q. (2009). Probe into the internal mechanism of interlanguage fossilization. English Language Teaching, 2(2), 75-77. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1082359.pdf

Li, D. Activating strategies to fossilization for English learners in China. English Language Teaching, 2(4), 75-77. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1083718.pdf.

Nkobi, T., & Weaver, S. (2011). Multiple Intelligences & Learning Styles. Retrieved fromhttp://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/33390809/Multiple_

Qian, M, & Xiao, Z. (2010). Strategies for preventing and resolving temporary fossilization in second language acquisition. English Language Teaching, 3(1), 180-183. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1081500.pdf.

Wei, X. (2008). Implication of IL Fossilization in Second Language Acquisition. English Language Teaching, 1(1), 127-131. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/

How Can Teaching in Digital Age be Influenced by the MOOC?

Online education is a revolution to the educational realm; a now rapidly prevalent paradigm of teaching worldwide. This approach to teaching and learning has been progressively evolving for the past years. Thus, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) has come to view. It is without doubt that MOOC is a gateway to the most “effective and efficient delivery methods of contents and skills globally” (North, Richardson, & North, 2014, p. 69). However, according to Min, Kang, Cao, Lim, Ko, Myers, and Weiss (2014) a concern about how the forthcoming instruction will be, the worth and value of getting a degree, and the effect of technology on how schools should be run have been raised. Aside from these predicaments, learners’ isolation, learners from developing countries who do not gain web connection consistently and “the emergent, fragmented, confusing at times, and self-defined nature of massive open online courses” outstretched challenges to students, teachers, and schools (as cited by McAuley, Stewart, Siemens, and Cormier in Lui et al., 2014, p. 2; Yanez, Nigmonova, Panichpathom, 2015).

Still, despite the negative encounters, MOOC has been viewed significant since it “promotes sharing information worldwide and has created many opportunities for teaching and learning in a variety of disciplines” (North et al., 2014, p. 69).  This new paradigm of education is open to any person who is interested and provides education for learners who gain access to the internet (Zhenghao, Alcorn, Gayle, Christensen, Erikson, Koller, & Emanuel, 2015). It cannot be ignored that courses’ schedule flexibility and accessibility; schools and instructors’ credibility; free and revolutionary access to quality learning materials; no geographical limitations; and collaborative learning are some of the many benefits MOOC has in the field of education (Onah, Sinclair, & Boyatt, ; Zhenghow et al., 2015; Sokolova, 2014).

In view of the Philippines with this new discipline of education, it is positively progressing. MOOC has helped the schools such as the University of the Philippines in their curriculum and other Philippine State Universities and colleges. More so, the Department of Education, Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS) have a high esteem for this area since it offers a variety of options to any learner who takes interest in enrolling to any free courses (Iversity, 2013; University of the Philippines Open University, 2016; & PIDS, 2015). It is without argument that MOOC will greatly help facilitate learning, build up careers, and will help shape the educational paradigm of the Philippines in the near future.

In the course of the learners, they are taught to be independent in acquiring the knowledge offered.  They may actively involve in the learning process since it is convenient with their chosen time wherever they may be. MOOC will also offer a wider scale of opportunities to explore; engagement to peer support system; immersion of cultural diversity; and imparting the different interactive and collaborative learning materials and tools (North, et al., 2014; Onah et al., 2015). Hence, learners will be enthused to learn more and be better in their chosen fields of expertise.

In a Christian perspective, MOOC can also be used for the furtherance of God’s work. Our Seventh-day Adventist Institutions may offer free courses that will equip and train people to preach the Gospel. Thus, people around the world will break barriers of cultural complexities and be immersed into the depths of God’s love to humanity.



Iversity (2013). MOOC Project to Design Resilient Schools for the Philippines. Retrieved from https://iversity.org/en/pages/mooc-for-philippines

Liu, M., Kang, J., Cao, M., Lim, M., Ko, Y. & Weiss, A.S. (2013). Understanding MOOCs as an Emerging Online Learning Tool: Perspectives From the Students. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0ahUKEwjbn8TmlIPRAhUJUZQKHbdOAtIQFggnMAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.edb.utexas.edu%2Fliu%2Ffiles%2FMOOC_Study1_final.docx&usg=AFQjCNFDjUNQ9ao2SB8a-UEXtigfErUJxg

North, Richardson, & North (2014). To adapt MOOCS, or not? That is no longer the question. Universal Journal of education Research,  2(1), 69-72

Onah, D. F., Sinclair, J., & Boyatt, R. (2014). Exploring the use of MOOC discussion forums. In Proceedings of London International Conference on Education, pp. 1-4

Philippine Institute for Development Studies (2015). Massive Open Online Courses: A prmier for Philippine State Universities and colleges. Retrieved from http://dirp3.pids.gov.ph/websitecms/CDN/PUBLICATIONS/pidsdps1547.pdf

Sokolova, S. (2014). What are the advantages of MOOC and how can you benefit fromthem? Retrieved from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/what-advantages-moocs-benefits-from-them-siyana-sokolova

University of the Philippines Open University (2016). UPOU to offer MOOC on Philippine Arts and Culture. Retrieved from http://www.upou.edu.ph/188-upou-to-offer-moocs-on-philippine-arts-and-culture

Yáñez,C.,Nigmonova, D., Panichpathom, W. (2015). DeMOOCratization of Education?: Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) and the opportunities and challenges for developing countries. Retrieved from http://repository.graduateinstitute.ch/record/286962/files/MOOCs_Full_Final.pdf

Zhenghao, C.,  Alcorn, B., Christensen, G., Erikson, E., Koller, D., & Emanuel, E. (2015). Who’s benefiting from MOOCs, and why. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2015/09/whos-benefiting-from-moocs-and-why

How Can Teaching in Digital Age be Influenced by the Community of Inquiry?

The digital era has brought view a new approach to teaching—online. This approach is known as computer-based communication (CMC). Without a doubt, CMC has been a great help in the educational world to facilitate the teaching and learning experience anytime, anywhere. Also, CMC has aided the web-based instruction in a more convenient way. However, this approach to teaching has not been well studied and the quality of learning has not been explored significantly (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 1999). Additionally, over the years, educators have been concerned how to bring about the face-to-face community into CMC educational instruction since courses online are mainly text-based—social interaction is not prevalent at all. Adversely, lack of human interaction has been the issue for CMC (deNoyelles, Zydney, & Chen, 2014).

Swan, Richardson, and Garrison (2009) mentioned that human interaction is significant to the teaching and learning environment. Without it, students get frustrated and disappointed in the learning course especially online. Hence, a framework of Community of Inquiry (CoI) was conceptualized. CoI has greatly helped the learning process of the students since it aims to have the three core elements—social presence, cognitive presence, and teaching presence—be established in a web-based instruction environment (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 1999; and Swan, Garrison, & Richardson, 2009). CoI allows the teacher to use different kinds of software to facilitate a more interactive, collaborative, and socially mediated teaching (Morrison, 2014). CoI supports teachers to practice the social, cognitive, and teaching presence in the learning environment of the students.

It is indisputable that education has evolved from simply using books and papers to computers and web-based instruction yet Philippines in the state of educational technology is still way off course of this evolution. Philippines juggle from paper to computer-based instruction (Maghirang, 2016). Many Filipino teachers look at technology as cumbersome, so they opt to the face-to-face interaction which limits the students learning experiences.  The CoI framework will surely provide a more enriched learning since it will facilitates the different needs of students. As  Febro and Buan (2013) posit in their  Philippine study regarding the use of educational technology, “learning is better retained when students are provided the chance to apply and continue the experience.” CoI provides this kind of learning since it fosters the process of acquiring knowledge and information even when teachers are not available physically or even outside the classroom. In general, students will have a meaningful learning experience if the CoI framework will be used. CoI promotes interpersonal relationship among the students and between the students and the teacher. It intensifies the students’ eagerness to collaborate and be actively engage in their learning. More so, it opens the way for broader and wider learning of the students as they explore the learning web-based environment with CoI framework (Lowenthal, 2012; Febro & Buan, 2013; and Maghirang, 2016). Altogether, CoI is beneficial to the teaching and learning environment.

In a Christian perspective, God has been using the community of Inquiry framework to let us feel what heaven is like, how much He loves us, and reveal His character. He creates the social presence by our family, friends, and the environment we were at in the past, we are in at the moment, and we would be in the future. He creates the cognitive presence through the Bible and nature’s disclosure. He creates teaching presence through our day to day experiences.



 deNoyelles, A. Z., Zydney, J. & Chen, B. (2014). Strategies for creating a community of inquiry through online asynchronous discussion. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 10(1), 153-165. Retrieved from goo.gl/EvFmgI

Febro, R., & Buan, A. (2013). Development of educational technology courses and their application in student teaching: case of Mindanao State University – Iligan Institute of Technology, Philippines. Teacher Education Curriculum in Asia, pp. 40-55. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273347913_Development_of_educational_technology_courses_and_their_application_in_student_teaching_case_of_Mindanao_State_University_-_Iligan_Institute_of_Technology_Philippines_pp_40-_50_Case_Studies_on_Integra

Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (1999). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The internet and higher education, 2(2), 87-105. Retrieved from: goo.gl/5ryayN

Lowenthal, P. R. (2012). Social presence: what is it? how do we measure it? (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from: goo.gl/pvPtXO

Morrison, D. (2014,). Community of inquiry model: How to develop social presence in online and F2F courses with social media. Retrieved from Online Learning Insights: goo.gl/KvkeFX

Swan, K., Garrison, D. R. & Richardson, J. C. (2009). A constructivist approach to online learning: the Community of Inquiry framework. In Payne, C. R. (Ed.) Information Technology and Constructivism in Higher Education: Progressive Learning Frameworks. Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 43-57.

Maghirang, T. (2016). Educational technology platform Canvas to accelerate learning in PH. Retrieved from http://www.interaksyon.com/infotech/educational-technology-platform-canvas-to-accelerate-learning-in-ph

How Can Teaching in Digital Age be Influenced by the Evolution of the Web?

The teaching-learning experience between teachers and students has taken into a big leap across the years through the breakthrough of web evolution. Gone were the days when classroom instruction is traditional and monotonous—dependent on the teacher; student; and printed materials, such as, books, magazines, and articles. In the educational setting, students are given opportunities to be active and engaged with their learning, and exposed to authentic content of study through web-based resources. It is important to note that the use of the web-based instruction worldwide has brought a whole new perspective in the teaching pedagogy of all fields of education and has aided the learning process of the students significantly (Lim, Zhao, Tondeur, Chai, & Tsai, 2013; & Flanagan, 2008). Therefore, it is safe to say that in today’s digital age, web-based instruction is at the vanguard of education.

It is without doubt that this kind of technology in teaching—web-based instruction—amidst its negative effects and complexities has helped the educational system around the world (Costley, 2014; Dunmre, 2010; Prensky, 2001; Sharp, 2015; & Young, 2008), specifically, the Philippines. As teachers and learners navigate the education path of the 21st century, web-based instruction has become predominant because of the “advancement, improvement, and progress it provides in the learning process of the students (Dunmre, 2010, p. 2). More so, web-based instruction in the Philippines provides meaningful learning experiences, hands-on learning opportunities in all academic subjects, and collaboration between students (Laping, 2016). Teachers in this respect need to look beyond the use of traditional teaching to transform instruction into an elevating learning experience to the students. Thus, as Sharp (2015) stated, merging the “knowledge of pedagogy, subject matter, and technology creates an enriching learning environment” (p. 75).  It has been a great challenge by teachers over the years how to cater the different learning styles of the students and to be the main knowledge provider (Labbas & El Shaban, 2013; & Lim et al., 2008). With web-based instruction, teachers become facilitators instead of being the lecturers. In support with the above statement, it has been proven in Bonifacio’s (2013) study in the Philippines that web-based instruction promotes active, collaborative, integrative, evaluative, creative, and project-based learning. Thus, create a life-long learner in each of the students rather than passive receivers of information.

Furthermore, several studies shows that if teachers are open to change and the evolution of the web, greater and positive results in the learning process of the students will take place (Bonifacio, 2013; Costley, 2014; Dunmre, 2010;  Labbas & El Shaban, 2013; & Prensky, 2001). In addition, web evolution opens a wide array of learning materials and teaching resources that make the classroom environment more worthwhile, operative, and effective. More so, it helps the teachers to have a more student-centered learning method. With this method, students are given the opportunity “to use the technology as a tool that enables them to collect, analyze, and create major projects” (Young, 2008, p. 43). The students are given the quality to explore the concepts on their own while teachers only serve as guidepost to keep the students in the right track of learning. In web evolution integrated in education, it is not so much of the quantity of information given and received from the teacher but the quality of output students produce and vast knowledge acquired as they become navigators of learning.

Looking into the Christian perspective, teachers can use the web to teach students how to share Jesus to the world. It is not more of how to navigate into the complexities and wonders of the web alone but of how students learn the value of using it to spread the Gospel of Salvation.


Bonifacio, A. (2013). Developing information communication technology (ICT) curriculum standards for K-12 schools in the Philippines. Retrieved from http://www.linc.mit.edu/linc2013/proceedings/Session7/Session7Bonifacio.pdf

Costley, K. (2014). The positive effects of technology on teaching and student learning. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED554557.pdf

Dunmre, R. (2010). The use of instructional technology in the classroom,: Selection and effectiveness. Retrieved from http://www.usma.edu/cfe/literature/dunmire_10.pdf

Flanagan, J. (2008). Technology: The positive and negative effects on student achievement. Retrieved from http://www.digitalcommons.brockport.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1259.pdf

Labbas, R., & El Shaban, A. (2013). Teacher development in the Digital Age. Teaching English with Technology, (3), 53-64.

Laping, G. (2016). Why teachers have to use technology. Retrieved from http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/776644/why-teachers-have-to-use-technology

Lim, C.-P., Zhao, Y., Tondeur, J., Chai, C.-S., & Tsai, C.-C. (2013). Bridging the Gap: Technology Trends and Use of Technology in Schools. Educational Technology & Society, 16 (2), 59–68.

Sharp, L. (2015). Literacy in the digital age. Retrieved from http://www.files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1034912.pdf

Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. MCB University Press, 9(5), 1-6. Retrieved from http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20 Natives,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20-%20Part1.pdf.

Young, R. (2008). Using technology tools in the public school classroom (Master’s Thesis). Retrieved from http://www2.uwstout.edu/content/lib/thesis/2008/2008youngr.pdf